- Discuss and explain different theories of virtue;
- Understand the theories and its application in the contemporary societies;
- Know the significant of theories;
- Reflect theories and practices in our daily life;
- Know how to evaluate ethical life and unethical life.
People around the world live and lead the life differently. They developed their virtues through their cultural and moral values and practices in a particular place where they live in.
Human character is shaped over time by a combination of natural inclinations and the influence of factors such as family, culture, education, and self-reflection.
This chapter introduces key ideas of some influential virtue ethicists: Plato, Aristotle, Aquinas, Hume, MacItyr, and Pincoffs. According to these philosophers, the moral aim of life is to be a good person- to have a virtuous character and to relate to other people in desirable ways.
Virtue is the knowledge of leading a good life and wealthy life. It is the knowledge of how to do the right things for oneself benefits and the benefits for many others. Virtue is the qualities of character that people need to do well in life.
Human Nature for Aristotle:
Humans are rational animal
Humans are unique animal because of their reason Humans are social and political animal
Humans flourish in groups
Humans have social origins
Humans succeed in social pursuit
Human’s nature is the ‘pursuing for happiness’
Aquinas once again made Aristotle’s view popular. Most of his adult life he was a professor. He developed ethical perspectives into classical ethics:•Everything has a specific purpose or end•The highest good and the fountain of all goodness is God• Our ultimate goal—the good life– is not something that we can access only with reason.
Aquinas’s ethical concepts were grounded in Christian virtues:•Faith•Hope•LoveFor him, the natural purpose in living by reason became a supernatural purpose: supreme happiness through communion with god, a happiness imperfectly realizable in this world and perfected only in life after death.