Thursday, December 6, 2012

Contents: Chapter I

1.  Overview of Ethics and definition

1.1 Chapter Objectives

1.2  Morality and Self-Interest

1.3  Applied Ethics

1.4  Ethical Subjectivism 

1.5  Ethical Egoism

1.6  Psychological Egoism

1.7  Self-Fulfillment

1.8  Summery

 1. Overview of Ethics

  • Ethics is not simply a matter  knowing the ethical theories. More important, it is about doing the right things in practical life. As a practical matter, ethics is about how we meet the challenge of doing the right thing. A new and more specific code of ethics must be developed to meet the demands of social development and social  services in the contemporary developing  world. 
  • There are two important aspects to understand ethical concept:
    First, ethics refers to well based standards of right and wrong that prescribe what humans ought to do, usually in terms of rights, obligations, benefits to society, fairness, or specific virtues. And, ethical standards include standards relating to rights, such as the right to life, the right to freedom from injury, and the right to privacy. Such standards are adequate standards of ethics because they are supported by consistent and well founded reasons.
    Secondly, ethics refers to the study and development of one's ethical standards. As mentioned above, feelings, laws, and social norms can deviate from what is ethical. So it is necessary to constantly examine one's standards to ensure that they are reasonable and well-founded. Ethics also means, then, the continuous effort of studying our own moral beliefs and our moral conduct, and striving to ensure that we, and the institutions we help to shape, live up to standards that are reasonable and solidly-based.

  •  Chapter Objectives: At the end of the chapter, students will be able to: 
         Discuss the concepts of ethics and morality and its application 

Describe some ethical theories that may be used to guide ethical decision-making
         Discuss how ethics relates to commitments to personal excellence

     Definitions of Ethics and Morality
Ethics is the systematic study the standard of conduct of Right and Wrong
Ethics to Standards of conduct- that indicate how one should behave based on the principles of Right and Wrong.
Ethics : A way to decide the best thing to do in life.
Ethics is the study of rational examination of Morality.

  Finally, Ethics commonly refers to professional behavior

Morality is a system of rules for guiding human conduct, and principles for evaluating those rules.

In general, Morality usually refers to any aspect of human action.

Applied Ethics
Applied Ethics is the art or science of reflecting on moral dilemmas and moral problems in different social context. 
The term “Applied Ethics” and “Practical Ethics” are used interchangeably to indicate the application of ethics to special arenas of human activity, such as business, politics and medicine, and to particular problems, such as abortion. 
“Applied Ethics” refers to any use of philosophical methods to treat moral problems, practices, and policies in the professions, technology, government, and the like”
Applied Ethics deals with controversial moral problems 
such as abortion, premarital sex, capital punishment      and civil disobedience.

Ethical Subjectivism
     Ethical Subjectivism” is the denial there is one objective moral standard for all groups at all times; more precisely, ethical relativism is the doctrine that differences in moral standard ought to exist.

Ethical Egoism
     “Ethical Egoism”  is the normative theory that hold that each person ought to pursue his/her self-interest. It holds that the morally right action is that action that maximizes the agent’s one own good. 

An action is good if it produces result to maximize person’s self-interest of the expense of others.


Psychological Egoism
     Psychological Egoism is a description of human Motivation. psychological egoism tells us that we just do pursue our own self interest because this is how human psychological motivation works. It holds that as a matter of psychological law, human beings act only from selfish motives.
Psychology Egoism:
  •       All human actions are motivated by selfish desires
  •      The only thing anyone is capable of desiring as an end in itself is his own self interest
  •       People always act in their self-interest;
  •     people are always motivated by desire to satisfy what they perceive to be their own self-interest


   Self-Fulfillment is a concept used in philosophy and to referring to the realizing one’s deepest desires and capacities. Another definition states that self-fulfillment is the attainment of a satisfying and worthwhile life well lived. 
      Morality recognizes the importance of our own good as well as the good of others. Some say we have moral responsibility while some say prudence and self-respect are moral virtue. This connection is called Self-Fulfillment.

Insight-full question: Being ethical man what should he do? My key answer: Being ethical man he should choose the right things to do and do what the law requires and accepts.